|Designer||Pierre Dupont |
|First flight||June 1916 |
|Introduction||Aug 1917 |
|Primary users|| Italy|
|Number built||1562  or ~1000 [note 1]|
|Wingspan||8.69 m (28 ft 6 in) |
|Engine||110hp Le Rhône 9J rotary or 120hp 9Jb or 130hp 9Jby|
|Armament||sync. fixed Vickers|
|Max Speed||see table|
The nimble Hanriot H.D.1 was never accepted by France's Aviation Militaire, probably because it used the same engine as the Nieuport 16 and 17, which was already in production. It found great proponents, though, in Italy and Belgium and (after the war) Switzerland. It was unusual in having pronounced dihedral in the upper wing but none in the lower, a design which may have improved pilot sight lines.
Seventy-nine HD.1s were ordered by Belgium and the supplied First Escadrille starting in August 1917, and as they arrived HD.1s were used by most Belgian fighter escadrilles. Ninth and Eleventh used HD.1s through the end of the war.
In Italy, the HD.1 was found to be superior to the Nieuport 17 and Italian pilots were impressed with this strength and agility. It was officially adopted in November 1916, and Italian production began in the winter of 1916-1917, beginning with an order of 100 with Macchi. Italian HD.1s moved the machine gun from its original port-offset position to central. 76ª Squadriglia received their first on August 1717 and the by November they were in use by eight squadriglia. Italian pilots praised its high maneuverability, sturdiness, and light touch on the controls. Early models had the gun offset, but later models moved it to the center of the fuselage-top to improve aiming.
By the Armistice it was still in service with about eighteen squadriglia, sometimes mixed with other types, including one in Macedonia and another in Albania. Seventeen hundred Italian HD.1s were ordered and 831 were delivered before the Armistice.
Both Belgian and Italian pilots experimented with adding a second machine-gun to the Hanriot, but performance suffered greatly under the extra weight.
|110hp Le Rhône 9Jb rotary||182 km/h (113 mph) - 185 km/h (115 mph)||1,000 m (3,280 ft) in 2:10 or 2:40 or 2:58
2,000 m (6,560 ft) in 5:10 or 6:40 or 6:03
10,000 ft (3,000 m) in 8:30 or 11:00 or 11:03
13,120 ft (4,000 m) in 13:10 to 19:30
|5,900 m (19,400 ft) to 6,000 m (19,700 ft) to 21,000 ft (6,400 m)|
|130hp Le Rhône rotary||187 km/h (116 mph)||6,500 ft (2,000 m) in 5:31
10,000 ft (3,000 m) in 9:17
13,120 ft (4,000 m) in 14:08
|23,600 ft (7,200 m)|
For more information, see Wikipedia:Hanriot HD.1.
Timeline [note 2]
|Version||Availability||Maneuver||Damage||Dmg Points||Max Alt.||Climb||Points|
|normal 1× Vickers||Aug17-end||F||B||14||14||3||67|
|custom 2× Vickers||F||A||14||14||3||87|
Plane and Crew Cards
Miniatures and Models
- Ares: WGF109A Coppens , WGF109B Fucini , WGF109C Scaroni
- Shapeways: Arctic Skunk, Decapod, wow
- Plastic kit: Valom 14411
- Metal kit: Reviresco
- Angelucci, p.56.
- Davilla, p.270.
- Alegi, p.36.
- Lamberton, pp.216-217.
- Angelucci, p.45.
- Bruce'66, p.12.
- Davilla, p.272.
- Munson, p.66.
- Bruce'88, p.25.
- Bruce'66, p.7.
- Gregory Alegi, Windsock Datafile 92: Hanriot HD.1/HD.2. Great Britain: Albatros Publications, Ltd., 2002. ISBN 1-902207-47-5
- Enzo Angelucci, ed. The Rand McNally Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft, 1914-1980. New York: The Military Press, 1983 edition. ISBN 0-517-41021-4.
- J.M. Bruce, Profile Publications 109: The Hanriot HD 1. Great Britain: Profile Publications, Ltd., 1966.
- J.M. Bruce, Windsock Datafile 12: Hanriot HD.1. Great Britain: Albatros Publications, Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-948414-14-6
- Dr. James J. Davilla and Arthur M. Soltan. French Aircraft of the First World War. Flying Machines Press, 1997. ISBN 0-9637110-4-0.
- W.M. Lamberton and E.F. Cheesman, Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War. Great Britain: Harleyford Publications Limited, 1960.
- Kenneth Munson, Fighters 1914-19, Attack and Training Aircraft. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1976. ISBN 0713707607