French Five-Color Camouflage

From Wings of Linen
Jump to navigation Jump to search

In October 1917[1], the French replaced their "yellow period" color standard with a five-color camouflage scheme, and you can frequently find this scheme on French planes whether they're flown by natives or allies. The five colors are usually described as a dark green, a light green, a chestnut brown, a beige, and underside light yellow, though sometimes a light blue was used in place of the underside yellow, and technically there was some black thrown in.

The following diagram shows a 1917-model SPAD 13 in five-color camouflage. Below is covered each of the four topside colors, with black needing no explanation and French Light Yellow covered elsewhere. As always, there was quite a bit of variance in the colors and even in the patterns, and several sample colors from actual fabric or paints are presented below. SPAD sent out patterns for their planes, but it was still up to each manufacturer to modify and adapt the sketches to their production machines.

French5ColorCamo.png

Dark Green[edit]

Dark Green 1F4 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 1F4[2]

CIElab 38.27,-2.65,9.4
rgb #5c5b4b

Austr. Std Environment Green (G66)

Beauti-Tone Mined Ore (D32-3-0443-3)
Behr Night Mission (N370-7)
Benjamin-Moore Cabbage Patch (2141-20)
British Std Green (12 B 27)
British Std Nato Green (381 285)
DIN6164 TSD 1-2-6
Dulux Loam (50YY 12/095)
FS595c Navair Flat Green #2 (24129)
Little Green Invisible Green (56)
NCS1950 S 7005-G80Y
RAL Classic Olivegrün (6003)
Valspar Night Safari (6011-3)

Vallejo German Fieldgrey WWII (70.830)

Vallejo Game Color Yellow Olive (72064)
Vallejo Reflective Green (90.896)
Vallejo Olive Grey (92.888)
Tamiya Olive Drab (XF-51)
Reaper MSP Shadowed Stone (9085)

Dark Green 3F3 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 3F3[3][4]

CIElab 40.1,-1.77,9.07
rgb #625f50

Behr Patio Stone (N360-6)

Benjamin Moore Mohegan Sage (2141-20)
British Std Slate (634)
FS595c Navair Flat Green #1 (34170)
Pantone 2 U
RAL Design 100 40 10
Sherwin-Williams Garden Gate (6167)

Vallejo US Dark Green (70.893)
Dark Green 3F4 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 3F4

CIElab 40.33,-2.25,13.46
rgb #645f49

Behr Ivy Topiary (PPU8-25)

Benjamin Moore Mediterranean Olive (2142-10)
DIN6164 TSD 1-3-5
FS595c Olive Drab CARC (34088)
Pantone 448 U
Valspar City Aboretum (6006-4C)

Vallejo Brown Violet (70.887)

Vallejo Russian Uniform (94.924)

Dark Green 3F5 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 3F5[3][4]

CIElab 39.98,-2.88,18.36
rgb #645f40

Beauti-Tone African Queen (D16-1-0375-3)

Behr Kilimanjaro (N340-7)
DIN6164 TSD 1-3-5
Dulux Green Pinon (70YY 12/167)
FS595c Green (34098)
FS595c Light Green Camouflage (34127)
Little Green Olive Colour (72)
NCS1950 S 6020-G70Y
Pantone 7763 C
RAL Design 100 40 20
Valspar Amazon Silt (6010-4)

Dark Green 3F6 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 3F6

CIElab 40.46,-2.52,20.44
rgb #67603e

Benjamin Moore Turtle Green (2142-20)

DIN6164 TSD 1-4-5
Dulux Heathrow (40YY 14/201)
FS595c 14151
NCS1950 S 6020-G70Y
RAL Design 095 40 20
Sherwin-Williams Palm Leaf (7735)

Reaper MSP Camouflage Green (9177)
Dark Green 29F3 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 29F3[1]

CIElab 42.0,-2.6,7.2
rgb #646457

Austr. Std. Ti-Tree (G65)

Beauti-Tone/Cloverdale Eye of the Storm (0423)
Behr Naturalism (MQ6-19)
Benjamin Moore Dark Olive (2140-30)
British Std. 634 Slate (634)
DIN6164 TSD 24-1-5
Dulux Spheric Winter (16GY 15/037)
Dulux Trade 11GY 12/072
FS595A Navair Flag Green #1 (34170)
Glidden Deepest Valley Green (30GY 13/045)
Pantone 417C
Pantone 7771U
PPG Double Duty (1030-7)
RAL Classic Green Gray (7009)
RAL Design 110 40 10
Sherwin-Williams Cast Iron (6202)
Valspar Cosmopolitan Olive (5008-2C)

Vallejo MC US Dark Green (70.893)

Reaper MSP Shadowed Stone (9085) ?

Dark Green 29F4 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 29F4[1]

CIElab 41.6,-4.6,11.3
rgb #626450

Beauti-Tone Newbury Moss (CC067-3)

Behr Russian Olive (N350-7)
Benjamin Moore Forest Floor (CC-570)
British Std. Slate (634)
British Std. 5252 Spruce Green (12 B 25)
Cloverdale Jewel Box Green (ST018)
DIN6164 TSD 24-2-5
Dulux/Glidden Holiday Bough (10GY 14/135)
FS595 Dark Green (24097)
Little Greene Mid bronze green (125)
NCS1950 S 6010-G50Y
Pantone 5743U
PPG All About Olive (1126-7)
RAL Design 110 40 10
Sherwin-Williams Garden Gate (6167)
Valspar City Arboretum (6006-4C)

Vallejo MC US Dark Green (70.893)

Reaper MSP Shadowed Stone (9085) ?

Dark Green 29F5 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 29F5[1]

CIElab 41.2,-7.0,16.5
rgb #606446

Beauti-Tone Aloe Leaf (C40-1-0417-3)

Behr Cedar Glen (S350-7)
Benjamin Moore Banyan Grove (OR-310)
Cloverdale Fiddlehead (CA168)
DIN6164 TSD 24-3-5
Dulux Plantation Green (90YY 13/177)
FS595A Dark Green (34101)
Little Greene Olive Colour (72)
NCS1950 S 6020-G50Y
Glidden Olive Green (90YY 15/147)
PPG Rustling Leaves (1123-7)
RAL Design 110 40 20
Sherwin-Williams Basque Green (6426)
Valspar Tarragon (6001-4C)

Vallejo MC Brown Violet (70.887) ~

Reaper MSP Umber Brown (29849) ?

Dark Green 29F6 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 29F6[1]

CIElab 40.6,-9.5,21.5
rgb #5d633c

Beauti-Tone/Cloverdale Aloe Leaf (C40-1-0417-3)

Behr Cedar Glen (S350-7)
Benjamin Moore Bonsai (CC-666)
British Std. 2660 Clover Leaf (5-065)
DIN6164 TSD 24-4-5
Dulux Plantation Green (90YY 13/177)
Dulux Trade 10GY 12/221
Glidden Palm Tree (77YY 13/238)
Pantone 7762C
PPG Rustling Leaves (1123-7)
RAL Design 110 40 20
Sherwin-Williams Basque Green (6426)
Valspar Summer's End (6005-4C)

TBD

Light Green[edit]

Light Green 1E4 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 1E4[2]

CIElab 64.27,-5.79,18.23
rgb #9e9e7b

Beauti-Tone French Pear (C40-3-0415-4)

Behr Sustainable (S350-4)
Benjamin Moore Rosemary Sprig (2144-30)
British Std. Quarry Grey (5-060)
Dulux Artichoke Leaf (70YY 34/180)
Dulux Trade Celtic Forest 2 (90YY 35/169)
Sherwin-Williams Green Sprout (7728)
Valspar Homestead Resort Pale Olive (6005-4A)

Light Green 3C5 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 3C5

CIElab 74.09,-5.22,40.71
rgb #c6b76a

Beauti-Tone Yellow Umbrella (B8-3-0800-4)

Behr Dried Chamomile (M320-5)
Dulux Limey (60YY 45/382)
Little Greene Pale Lime (70)
Pantone 617 C
Pantone 7766 U
Sherwin-Williams Antiquity (6402)
Valspar Greek Tapenade (6008-6B)

Vallejo Dark Sand (70.847) ?

Reaper Mouldy Skin (9149 Mouldy Skin) ?

Light Green 3E4 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 3E4[3][4]

CIElab 62.6,-4.34,24.9
rgb #a0985b

Beauti-Tone Greensleeves (C39-3-0359-4)

Behr Dried Chive (S330-5)
Dulux Tuscan Hillside (50YY 30/192)
Sherwin-Williams Lemon Verbena (7726)
Valspar La Fonda Olive (6006-6B)

Light Green 3E5 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 3E5[3][4]

CIElab 62.91,-4.87,32.9
rgb #a4995d

Beauti-Tone Shiny Gold (B12-2-0388-4)

Behr Keemun (M330-6)
NCS1950 S 3030-G80Y
Pantone 5835 C
Pantone 618 U
Sherwin-Williams Tupelo Tree (6417)

Reaper MSP Terran Khaki (9122) ?
Light Green 30D4 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 30D4[1]

CIElab 70.1,-5.8,17.5
rgb #adad8b

Beauti-Tone Rediscover (C42-3-0408-0)

Behr Sanctuary (PPU9-21)
Benjamin Moore English Thyme (OR-312)
British Std. 2660 Sky (5-059)
British Std. 5252 Beige (12 B 19)
Cloverdale Artichoke (CA160)
DIN6164 TSD 24-2-2
Dulux/Glidden Thyme (70YY 46/160)
Farrow&Ball Ball Green (75)
FS595A Green (34583)
Pantone 5783 C
PPG Olive Sprig (1125-4)
RAL Design 110 70 20
Sherwin-Williams Koi Pond (7727)
Valspar Backwoods (6004-3C)

Vallejo MC Stone Grey (70.884) ~

Reaper MSP Pale Olive (9036)

Light Green 30D5 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 30D5[1]

CIElab 69.9,-7.5,22.5
rgb #adae82

Beauti-Tone/Cloverdale Rediscover (C42-3-0408-0)

Behr Tarragon Tease (PPU9-8)
Benjamin Moore Grasslands (CC-590)
DIN6164 TSD 24-3-2
Dulux Dalmuir Mews (70YY 37/296)
Glidden Spring Bud Green (90YY 43/271)
NCS1950 S 3020-G50Y
Pantone 5777U
PPG Sparrow Spring (11-13)
RAL Design 110 70 20 ()
Sherwin-Williams Ryegrass (6423)
Valspar Gentle Pasture (6003-4A)

Vallejo MC Pastel Green (70.885) ?

Reaper MSP Pale Olive (9036)

Light Green 30D6 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 30D6[1]

CIElab 69.6,-8.9,27.4
rgb #acad78

Beauti-Tone/Cloverdale Peter Pan (C30-3-0786-4)

Behr Natchez Moss (PPU9-5)
Benjamin Moore Brookside Moss (2145-30)
British Std. 5252 Green (12 C 35)
Dulux/Glidden Dalmuir Mews (70YY 37/296)
PPG Sparrow Song (11-13)
RAL Design 110 70 30
Sherwin-Williams Ryegrass (6423)
Valspar Gentle Pasture (6003-4A)

Chestnut Brown[edit]

Chestnut Brown 5E3 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 5E3[3][4]

CIElab 61.58,1.52,15.62
rgb #a29e79

Austr. Std. Oyster (N41)

Beauti-Tone Whipcord (D27-3-0338-4)
Behr Golden Olive (MQ2-24)
Benjamin Moore Nordic Gray (CC-576)
British Std. Eddystone (4-049)
DIN6164 TSD 2-2-3
Dulux Tumbleweed Trail (30YY 33/145)
Dulux Trade Chalky Downs 2 (30YY 33/145)
FS595c Khaki P1 (23430)
FS595c Sand Camouflage (33303)
NCS1950 S4010-Y10R
Pantone 2325 C
Pantone 7503 U
Sherwin-Williams Sandy Ridge (7535)
Valspar Lyndhurst Mushroom (3007-9C)

Chestnut Brown 5E4 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 5E4[3][4]

CIElab 60.7,3.23,23.27
rgb #a78f6a

Beauti-Tone Gold Taffeta (D11-2-0276-4)

Behr Hidden Treasure (D300-5)
Benjamin Moore Woodstock Tan (HC-20)
DIN6164 TSD 2-3-3
Dulux Basketry (20YY 31/205)
Dulux Trade Braken Salts 1 (30YY 27/226)
NCS1950 S 4020-Y
RAL Classic Olive Yellow (1020)
Sherwin-Williams Burlap (6137)
Valspar Mark Twain House Oak (3004-9C)

Vallejo Green Ochre (70.914) ?
Chestnut Brown 6F5 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 6F5[1][2]

CIElab 41.11,6.25,14.02
rgb #735d4a

Beauti-Tone Dapper (D4-2-0192-3)

Behr Folk Guitar (N260-7)
Benjamin Moore Mustang (2111-30)
DIN6164 TSD 3-2-5
Dulux Oakley Brown (80YR 14/140)
Dulux Trade Rich Praline 2 (0YY 12/173)
FS595c International Brown (30140)
Pantone 452 U
Sherwin-Williams Grounded (6089)
Valspar Sumutra Blend (2008-9A)

Vallejo German Camo. Pale Brown (70.825) ?

Reaper MSP Brown Sand (9246)

Chestnut Brown 6F6 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 6F6[1][2]

CIElab 39.94,8.13,17.12
rgb #745943

Austr. Std. Brown (X54)

Behr Mission Brown (N250-7)
Benjamin Moore Brown Tar (2110-20)
British Std. Dark Earth (350)
DIN6164 TSD 3-3-5
FS595c Field Drab Camouflage 33105
Pantone 4625 U
RAL Design 060 40 20
RAL Classic Pale Brown 8025
Sherwin-Williams Coconut Husk (6111)
Valspar Chocolate Turtle (3001-9A)

Reaper MSP Olive Skin Shadow (9220)
Chestnut Brown 6F7 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 6F7[1][2]

CIElab 38.98,10.69,21.81
rgb #775539

Benjamin-Moore Saddle Brown (2164-10)

DIN6164 TSD 3-4-5
Dulux Brown Study (00YY 12/173)
FS595c Earth Red Camouflage (31090)
NCS1950 S 6020-Y30R
Pantone 2321 C
Sherwin-Williams Sturdy Brown (6097)
Valspar Dark Earth (3011-8)

Vallejo Flat Earth (70.893) ?

Vallejo Beige Brown (70.875) ?

Chestnut Brown 7F5 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 7F5[1]

CIElab 39.3,9.7,16.0
rgb #745643

Austr. Std. Brown (X54)

Beauti-Tone Brownstone (CC033-3)
Behr Mission Brown (N250-7)
Benjamin Moore Brown Tar (2110-20)
British Std. Coffee/Bison (08 C 39)
Cloverdale Fondue (CA072)
DIN6164 TSD 4-3-5
Dulux/Glidden Otter Brook (80YR 11/151)
FS595 Brown (20122)
Pantone 4625U
PPG Chocolate Ripple (1078-7)
RAL Classic Pale Brown (8025)
RAL Design 060 40 20
Sherwin-Williams Rockwood Medium Brown (2807)
Valspar Deep Walnut (2004-9A)

Vallejo MC Beige Brown (70.875)

Reaper MSP Earth Brown (9029) ?

Chestnut Brown 7F6 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 7F6[1]

CIElab 37.5,13.3,20.9
rgb #764f37

Austr. Std. Brown (X54)

Beauti-Tone Coffee Shop (D7-1-015103)
Behr Earth Fired Red (S200-7)
Benjamin Moore Saddle Brown (2164-10)
British Std 2660 Middle Brown (3-045)
Cloverdale Beaten Earth (EX272)
DIN6164 TSD 4-4-5
Dulux American Brownie (65YR 11/146)
FS595 Earth red camouflage (31090)
Glidden Otter Brook (80YR 11/151)
Pantone 2321 C
NCS1950 S 6020-Y50R
PPG Molasses (1079-7)
RAL Classic Beige Brown (8024)
Sherwin-Williams Umber Rust (9100)
Valspar Cowboy Hat (3010-8)

Vallejo MC Beige Brown (70.875)

Reaper MSP Earth Brown (9029) ?

Chestnut Brown 7F7 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 7F7[1]

CIElab 35.5,17.5,26.5
rgb #78482A

Beauti-Tone Coffee Shop (D7-1-0151-3)

Behr Earth Fired Red (S200-7)
Benjamin Moore Seed Brown (2096-10)
Cloverdale Beaten Earth (EX272)
Dulux/Glidden Autumnal Chestnut (70YR 11/279)
NCS1950 S 6030-Y40R
Pantone 2320 C
PPG Molasses (1079-7)
RAL Classic Fawn Brown (8007)
RAL Effect 320-5
Sherwin-Williams Sturdy Brown (6097)
Valspar Cowboy Suede (2011-6)

Reaper MSP Ruddy Flesh (9441) ?

Beige[edit]

Beige 4C4 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 4C4

CIElab 71.04,-3.22,30.92
rgb #bcae75

Beauti-Tone Goldie Oldie (B12-3-0387-4)

Behr Chilled Wine (M310-5)
Benjamin Moore Timothy Straw (2149-40)
Pantone 617U
RAL Design 095 70 30
Sherwin-Williams Sassy Green (6416)
Valspar Desert Grass (3008-7C)

Reaper MSP Moldy Skin (9149) ?
Beige 4C5 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 4C5[3][4]

CIElab 71.84,-2.44,44.1
rgb #c5af5e

Beauti-Tone Samantha Jade (C26-4-1543-4)

Behr Lemongrass (PPU6-18)
Dulux Limey (60YY 45/382)
Pantone 617 C
Pantone 7766 U
Sherwin-Williams Antiquity (6402)
Valspar Dylan Velvet (3008-5B)

Reaper MSP Stained Ivory (9142) ?
Beige 4D6 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 4D6[2]

CIElab 64.3,-1.47,45.71
rgb #b29a48

Beauti-Tone Ap-peal-ing (C26-3-1542-3)

Behr Tangy Green (M320-6)
Dulux Golden Garland (40YY 34/446)
NCS1950 S 3040-G90Y
Pantone 457 U
Sherwin-Williams Escapade Gold (6403)

Beige 4E6 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 4E6[2]

CIElab 60.46,-1.74,45.35
rgb #a7913f

Beauti-Tone Rain Boots (B8-1-0802-3)

Behr Indian Spice (M300-6)
Benjamin Moore Lichen Green (2150-20)
Pantone 104U

Vallejo Desert Yellow (70.977) ?
Beige 5D4 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 5D4[1]

CIElab 64.8,4.0,25.1
rgb #b49971

Beauti-Tone/Cloverdale Gold Season (B9-2-0297-4)

Behr Antique Treasure (N280-5)
Benjamin Moore Taupe Suede (OR-64)
DIN6164 TSD 2-3-2
Dulux/Glidden Old Salem Gold (30YY 35/249)
FS595c Dark Yellow (33448)
NCS1950 S 3020-Y20R
Pantone 7503C
PPG Toasted Sesame (1099-5)
Sherwin-Williams Baguette (6123)
Valspar Caramel Gold (3006-7B)

VallejoMC Green Ochre (70.914) ~

ReaperMSP Khaki Shadow (9121) ?
ReaperMSP Tanned Skin (9044) ?
ReaperMSP Golden Shadow (9091) ?

Beige 5D5 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 5D5[3][1][4]

CIElab 65.83,5.22,29.44
rgb #bb9b6b

Beauti-Tone Silence Is Golden (B4-3-0891-4)

Behr Antique Treasure (N280-5)
Benjamin Moore Blair Gold (HC-22)
Dulux Old Salem Gold (30YY 35/249)
FS595c Gold (27043)
Sherwin-Williams Baguette (6123)
Valspar Mark Twain House Gold (3006-7C)

Vallejo Iraqui Sand (70.819) ~

Vallejo Green Ochre (70.914) ~

Beige 5D6 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 5D6[1][2]

CIElab 62.92,7.5,39.67
rgb #ba9251

Beauti-Tone Bugle Boy (B2-2-0899-3)

Behr Radiance (MQ4-7)
Benjamin Moore Aztec Yellow (2152-20)
Dulux Monarch Gold (20YY 36/370)
RAL Classic Ochre Yellow (1024)
Sherwin-Williams Bosc Pear (6390)
Valspar Bell Grove Brass (3010-4)

Vallejo Tan Yellow (70.912) ?

Reaper MSP Olive Skin Highlight (9222) ?

Beige 5E6 French Five-Color
Reference Color House Paints or Standards Hobby Paints
Methuen 5E6[2]

CIElab 59.47,6.51,36.4
rgb #ae894f

Beauti-Tone Golden Cadillac (B3-1-0879-3)

Behr Harvest Time (S300-6)
Benjamin Moore Tapestry Gold (2153-30)
DIN6164 TSD 2-4-2
Dulux Country Store (10YY 26/231)
Pantone 1255 U
RAL Design 080 60 40
Sherwin-Willimas Chamois (6131)
Valspar Camel Ride (3005-7A)

Vallejo Desert Yellow (70.977) ?

Reaper MSP HD Desert Tan (29826) ?

Background and Caveats[edit]

Note: As always, there was frequently variation in paint color, weathering, varnishing, etc., so this is just a general guide. Unless you've got a high-end, wide-gamut monitor in perfect calibration (and who does?), do not trust the colors you see on your monitor! Instead, visit your local paint store and see if you can find paint samples like the ones listed and then match your hobby paints or mixes against those. The goal is just to "get close enough" for your own tastes.

Color matching was performed with the 1989 Methuen Handbook of Color and a Nix Color sensor.

References[edit]

Citations
  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 Alegi'02, p.33
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Guttman'92, p.32.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Bruce-WD8, p.24.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Bruce-WD12, p.23.
Bibliography
  • Gregory Alegi, Windsock Datafile 92: Hanriot HD.1/HD.2. Great Britain: Albatros Publications, Ltd., 2002. ISBN 1-902207-47-5
  • J.M. Bruce, Windsock Datafile 8: Spad 7.C1. Great Britain: Albatros Publications, Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-948414-12-X
  • J.M. Bruce and R.L. Rimell, Windsock Datafile 12: Hanriot HD.1. Great Britain: Albatros Publications, Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-948414-14-6
  • Jon Guttman, Windsock Datafile 36: Nieuport 28. Great Britain, Albatros Publications, Ltd., 1992. ISBN 0-948414-44-8
  • A. Kornerup & J.H. Wanscher, Methuen Handbook of Colour, Third Edition. Great Britain: Methuen London, 1989, ISBN 0-413-33400-7